AICAR

Chemical formula: C9H15N4O8P
Molar masS: 338.21 g·mol−1
Formula: 5-Amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide

AICA-Ribonucleotide (AICAR)[edit] AICAR (5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide), also known as ZMP, is an analog of AMP that is capable of stimulating AMP-dependent protein kinase activity (AMPK). AICAR is being researched to treat and protect against cardiac ischemic injury. If left untreated, it may lead to a myocardial infarct. Cardiac Ischemia is caused by insufficient blood flow and oxygen to the myocardium. AICAR was first used in the 1980s as a method to preserve blood flow to the heart during surgery.
Currently, AICAR has also been shown as a potential treatment for diabetes by increasing the metabolic activity of tissues by changing the physical composition of muscle. AICAR (commonly under the name Acadesine) is an analog of adenosine that enters cardiac cells to inhibit adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase. It enhances the rate of nucleotide re-synthesis increasing adenosine generation from adenosine monophosphate only during conditions of myocardial ischemia. In cardiac myocytes, AICA-riboside is phosphorylated to AICA-ribotide (ZMP) to activate AMPK without changing the levels of the nucleotides. ZMP is able to enter the de novo synthesis pathway for adenosine synthesis to inhibit adenosine deaminase causing an increase in ATP levels and adenosine levels.